The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this celebrity endorsement, as well as the effect of different contexts on endorsement, demonstrating that although new celebrities are less affected by acclaimed celebrities, as they become better known, to use the endorsement of celebrities with charisma and who relating in some way to the aspiring celebrity, can be an effective strategy, especially for the beginners in the career. The authors used one of the program’s candidates and the celebrity that chose to coach the candidate. (2010), these aspiring celebrities may also be considered brands, with greater or lesser degrees of recognition. A brand aims, among other factors, to differentiate the product from other offerings and to add value, contributing to achieving competitive advantage (Keller and Lehmann, 2006; Aaker, 1991). Aaker, J.L. Knoll, J. and Matthes, J. (1992), “The role of expectancy and relevancy in memory for verbal and visual information: what is incongruency?”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. Celebrity endorsement is made up of four main pillars that are credibility, attractiveness, product matchup and lastly meaning transfer. An online questionnaire was used, and the link was distributed on an online panel provided and maintained by a national research institute. According to Knoll and Matthes (2017), the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement has been discussed in recent years in terms of positive and negative effects, and the influence of this effect is subject to several moderating variables, such as congruence, charisma (Silva et al., 2015) and endorser sex (Bergkvist and Zhou, 2016), which demonstrates the importance of studies that address different aspects and scenarios of this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement effect in an aspiring new celebrity. 13 No. Celebrity endorsement, self-brand connection and consumer-based brand equity. In both studies, it was once again possible to identify the influence of contextual factors on the endorsement, in a context of established celebrities endorsing aspiring celebrities. 2, pp. The study was conducted with 193 viewers of the show, with an average age of 28.3 (19-62). Alba, J.W. This case study examines the use of celebrity endorsement in the formation of the retail image of leading European grocery distribution group J. Sainsbury, in particular, the process of transference of celebrity images to the product’s image. Celebrity Entrepreneur Endorsement and Advertising Effectiveness. (2007), “Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: the role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence”, International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, Vol. 4, pp. 1, pp. Agrawal, J. and Kamakura, W.A. The findings of this study are similar to those found by Silva et al. 10 No. The final sample of this first study was 100 viewers, who were assigned to a 2 (celebrity endorsement: With endorsement vs No endorsement) × 1 (Participant of the program The Voice Brazil) condition. 8 No. 55-75. 934-939. In order to ease this challenge, this paper explores the celebrity endorsement literature. 15, No. 85-99. The participants who failed to choose the correct coach were assigned to the condition “no endorsement”. 529-541. Aspiring celebrities that are not very well known by spectators can benefit from celebrity endorsement. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Myrick, J.G. Um, N.-H. (2013), “Celebrity scandal fallout: how attribution style can protect the sponsor”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. (2005). If the celebrity endorser is careful in his or her statements of favoritism, the power of endorsement remains. Thus, in this program, candidates seeking to become new celebrities are valued by the public (potential consumers of their music) and are endorsed by the celebrity that chooses them to compete for their teams. 2, pp. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013 1 ISSN 2250-3153 www.ijsrp.org Influence of Celebrity Endorsement on … What to do when celebrity endorsements go bad”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. the celebrity endorser (Fleck et al., 2012). Ferle, L., & Choi. 391-414. 377-390. 12 No. Thomson, M. (2006), “Human brands: investigating antecedents to consumer’s strong attachments to celebrities”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. (2006), “Brands and branding: research findings and future priorities”, Marketing Science, Vol. and Lehmann, D.R. All these four elements combine to make up celebrity endorsement. 30 No. 411-454. Confirming H2 of this study, the weak candidate (weak brand) was better assessed on intention to consume her music when spectators positively evaluated the celebrity endorser (positive attitude toward celebrity) (Mwith Well Evaluated Celebrity = 5.6 (1.0) and Mwith Poorly Evaluated Celebrity = 4.3 (1.6); p < 0.01), as compared to her performance in the program (Mwith Well Evaluated Celebrity = 5.1 (1.5) Mwith Poorly Evaluated Celebrity = 3.4 (2.0); p < 0.01). Kim, Y. and Na, J. Celebrity endorsement is an efficient strategy used by marketers. 21 No. 11, No. (2003), “Race and gender effects on consumer identification of products with celebrities endorsers”, The Marketing Management Journal, Vol. R., Homer, P. M. (1985), Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: A social adaptation perspective, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. Celebrity endorsements are a popular way for marketers to promote their brands, products, and services. When choosing a celebrity to endorse another, it is necessary to emphasize the possible associations between them for the public, and constantly monitor the reputation of the celebrity vis-à-vis consumers and ensure that there is no overexposure of the celebrity, as the effect of the endorsement will be less effective if the same celebrity endorses several aspirants to a new celebrity. 289-303. https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-04-2018-011. Celebrities have been involved in endorsing various activities since the eighteenth century. 46-54. Celebrity endorsement research questionnaire is very useful for gathering the essential feedback through different sources to finalize a most popular celebrity. On Marketing Contributor. 34 No. Despite the generally positive aspects of endorsement on the evaluation of general products, as has been verified in other studies (Choi and Rifon, 2012; Silva et al., 2015), in some cases celebrities cannot substantially help promote products (Knoll and Matthes, 2017; Sliburyte, 2009). Wei, P.S. (1990), “Celebrity spokesperson and brand congruence, an assessment of recall and affect”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. In addition, for consumers, product quality is not necessarily related to the technical characteristics of the product, but to an intangible assessment of the brand in question, thereby turning the brand into a key element in the process of purchase decisions (Hoeffler and Keller, 2003). Published in RAUSP Management Journal. Their assets, as in the case of product brands, can be built through recognition and remembrance, positive associations, perceived quality in the relationship and loyalty level generated by the relationship. 41 No. 954-961. 690-703. (1981), “On explaining and predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. All spectators assessed the participant through a series of questions. Purpose of the paper: the paper aims to investigate the effect that the celebrity fit (ie the consonance between the brand and the celebrity used in advertising in support of that brand) may have on consumer loyalty towards a brand protagonist of an extension strategy. Marketers consider the featuring of celebrities in ads a magnet that attracts consumers to the brand through glamor. The scenarios of congruence level were manipulated by having spectators read a text showing the congruence (or incongruence) between the candidate and the celebrity that was coaching him or her during the show. The effect of celebrity endorsements on the evaluation of products, demonstrating that celebrities influence their fans, has also been studied (Sliburyte, 2009; McNamara, 2009). While the magnitude of the impact of celebrity endorsement remains under the purview of gray spectacles, this paper is an effort to analyze the impact of celebrity endorsements on brand. Silva, L.A., Lopes, E.L., Freire, O. and Silva, D. (2015), “The brand’s effect on the evaluation of advertising endorsed by celebrities: an experimental study”, Brazilian Business Review, Vol. The ARF is the premier advertising industry association for creating, aggregating, synthesising and sharing the knowledge required by decision makers to lead and succeed. Thus, it is expected that: A weak candidate (worst rated) endorsed by a congruent celebrity will be better assessed than a weak candidate endorsed by an incongruent celebrity. To select an appropriate celebrity, the advertiser or marketer should take into account, among other factors, the longevity of the campaign, the acceptance of the celebrity and their relevance, the target consumer’s opinion on the use of celebrities for communication and the receptivity of the target consumer when associating the celebrity with the product or brand. 9, pp. Celebrities have built-in images and followers, both powerful influencers to potential consumers. The celebrity was assessed with an adapted attitude scale (α = 0.986). 4, pp. 9, pp. Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China Kineta Hung , Kimmy W. Chan , Caleb H. Tse Journal of Advertising Research Dec 2011, 51 (4) 608-623; DOI: 10.2501/JAR-51-4-608-623 This can be achieved through musical style, regionality, physical appearance, etc. However, it is important to notice that when the aspiring new celebrity is successful in rapidly developing a strong image for the audience, this has the same effect as a strong brand, thereby moderating the negative effect of an endorsement by an overexposed celebrity. (2013), “An examination of the celebrity endorsements and online customer reviews influence female consumers’ shopping behavior”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. (2017), “The effectiveness of celebrity endorsements: a meta-analysis”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. Moreover, it would be important for other researchers to work with different kinds of brands and categories of products and services. Concerning the strong candidate (strong brand), there was no difference whether spectators perceived his advisor as a good or bad endorser. As a result, the number of aspiring celebrities has grown (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012). Chou, H.Y. McNamara, K. (2009), “Publicizing private lives: celebrities, image control and the reconfiguration of public space”, Social and Cultural Geography, Vol. 12 No. 230-237. 36 No. Also, participants in the overexposed celebrity condition perceived more over-exposure when compared to the participants in the not overexposed condition [MCelebrity Overexposed = 4.6 (1.8) and MCelebrity Not Overexposed = 3.4 (1.7); p < 0.01]. Series on free and subscription TV channels; comedy and music programs on YouTube; and reality shows based on simulations of real-life events such as musical and sporting competitions, have captivated audiences, making room for actors, musicians, athletes and participants in these reality shows to be considered aspiring celebrities, thus achieving certain social recognition. 2, pp. (2011), “Effects of multiple endorsements and consumer-celebrity attachment on attitude and purchase intention”, Australasian Marketing Journal, Vol. 3, pp. To give greater validity to the study, all studies were conducted during season two of the program The Voice Brazil, in which candidates compete for the preference of the public while seeking successful careers in the music industry. There was no difference in the evaluation of the weak participant (worst evaluated) concerning the congruence level with the endorser celebrity. In conclusion, it is proposed that celebrity endorsements in-fluence consumers’ cognitions including attention and in-terest, awareness, as well as perceptions. Credibility refers to the confidence that the celebrity conveys to the public; expertise is linked to the knowledge and experience that the endorser has on a certain subject; and attractiveness is associated with physical appearance, beauty and sympathetic nature. 291-314. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Examining the impact of brand transgressions on consumers’ perceptions of celebrity endorsers, Human brands: investigating antecedents to consumer’s strong attachments to celebrities, Endorsers in advertising: the case of negative celebrity information, The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumer attitudes and intentions, Celebrity scandal fallout: how attribution style can protect the sponsor, Areas of research in political advertising: a review and research agenda, An examination of the celebrity endorsements and online customer reviews influence female consumers’ shopping behavior, Nonprofit advertising: impact of celebrity connection, involvement and gender on source credibility and intention to volunteer time or donate money, Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, Building brand identity in competitive markets, Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity, https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-04-2018-011, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/celebrity-advertising-what-is-the-roi/. 56-62. When choosing a celebrity endorser, it is advisable for consumers to perceive a fit between new celebrity and celebrity. Studies also show that the use of celebrities in campaigns is linked to various strategies. 3, pp. As all candidates on The Voice usually have a coach, to select participants for the condition “no endorsement”, after evaluating the candidate they had to select who the candidate’s coach was from a list of celebrities. 4, pp. 13-23. Also, the greater the celebrity’s perceived guilt in the episode, the greater will be the influence on their endorsement effectiveness (Carrillat et al., 2013; Louie et al., 2001). 3, pp. 3, pp. First, participants had to answer questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch, or did not know the participant, were excluded from the study. 25 No. 2, pp. (2009), “The value of using famous personalities in advertising communications: a quantitative analysis of prices for a fashionable product”, available at: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/celebrity-advertising-what-is-the-roi/ (accessed 10 July 2014). 4, pp. 93-105. 80-107. They show that although new celebrities are less affected by endorsements from established celebrities as they become better known, employing the endorsement of celebrities with charisma and who are related in some way to the aspiring celebrity can be an effective strategy, especially for newcomers on the scene. This happens for both evaluation in the program and intention to consume the candidate’s products, demonstrating the effectiveness of the endorsement and its greater importance in cases in which the new celebrity has not yet established a strong image. 15-30. Overexposure was manipulated by designing a scenario in which the celebrity chose many candidates for her team (endorsing a large number of candidates) for an overexposed condition, and a scenario where the celebrity chose a few candidates for her team (endorsing few candidates) for a not overexposed condition. The results support the hypotheses and attest that level of overexposure has an effect on the endorsement, as well as on the context of products and brands, as confirmed in previous studies. 16 No. The stimuli were defined by the researchers, and Sam Alves was chosen as the contender (Strong Brand), for being one of the most popular candidates and most downloaded on the official website of the program. H1: As compared with non-celebrity endorsements or no 642-663. Given that the image of the celebrity endorser influences the product – and a negative image can negatively influence the evaluation of the product (Louie et al., 2001), but a recognized brand can change the endorsement effect (Silva et al., 2015) – it is expected that: A weak candidate (worst evaluated brand) endorsed by a celebrity with a positive image will be better evaluated than a weak candidate endorsed by celebrity with a negative image. Even though there is a lot of literature about celebrity endorsement, no research has been made up to now about how this method is used in the housing market. and Evans, S.D. (1999). 178-210. Rumschisky (2009) found that people are willing to pay up to 20 per cent more for a product, depending on who endorses it, generating greater revenues for the company. Kahle, L. and Homer, P.M. (1985), “Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: a social adaptation perspective”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. This article focuses on five aspects: to examine the present status of literature available on the effect of celebrity endorsement on consumer buying behaviour; to identify whether there is any association between the three groups of consumers (supporters/neutral/opposers of celebrity endorsement); … Langmeye, L., Walker, M. (1991), A first step to identify the meaning in celebrity endorsers, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Other studies (Subhadip, 2012; Ilicic and Webster, 2011; Hsu and Mcdonald, 2002; Tripp et al., 1994) show that there is a negative influence on the perception of credibility of the endorser, attitude toward the ad and intention to purchase products endorsed by overexposed celebrities, once the credibility of the celebrity and the validity of his or her appeal becomes questionable (Carrillat et al., 2013). Study 1 showed that when endorsed by an established celebrity, an aspiring new celebrity was better rated than when he or she lacked endorsement. (2010), “Dilution and enhancement of celebrity brands through sequential movie releases”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. The instrument was similar to that used in previous studies. 21 No. Louie, T., Kulik, R. and Jacobson, R. (2001), “When bad things happen to the endorsers of good products”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 211-220. 2, pp. 1, pp. Study 4 was conducted with 236 viewers of the show, with an average age of 30.6 (18-58). On the other hand, previous studies already showed that stronger candidates may have already established their image, thereby moderating the overexposure effect of his or her coach. 2, pp. 6 No. Neither intention of consuming his music [MCongruent Endorser = 5.6 (1.5) and MIncongruent Endorser = 5.4 (1.4); p = NS] nor performance in the program [MCongruent Endorser = 4.7 (1.9) and MIncongruent Endorser = 4.8 (1.6); p = NS] showed significant differences, regardless of the celebrity endorser congruence level, thus confirming H5 of this study (Figure 3). The role of expectancy and relevancy in memory for verbal and visual information: what is incongruency? In recent years, it has been normal in the USA for program participants to top iTunes download charts, demonstrating this potential. On the other hand, the weakest candidate (worst evaluated brand) was better evaluated when the endorsing celebrity coach was rated as having a positive image by the participant, rather than a negative image, confirming H2 of this study. Evaluation of candidates with and without endorsement, Candidates’ evaluations with celebrity endorsement with negative and positive image, Candidates’ evaluation with different congruence levels of endorsement, Candidates’ evaluation with different levels of celebrity endorser overexposure. The development and exponential growth of new media, combined with the diversification and growth of new media programming formats, has allowed the emergence of new celebrities (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012). Keeping Up With The Evolving World Of Celebrity Endorsement. 3, pp. 45 No. We used the same scales as Study 1 for candidates’ assessment, and an adapted attitude scale (α = 0.986) to evaluate the celebrity. 421-445. 13 No. Several factors are considered when choosing a celebrity endorser or brand sponsor, when attempting to establish a campaign for the brand: fame – wide recognition by consumers or by specific groups; adjustment – combination or match between brand attributes and celebrity attributes regarding consumer perceptions; financial features – costs and returns from the use of celebrities as endorsers; and. 4, pp. 45 No. 17 No. Ronay, R., & von Hippe, W. 2010. No difference can be observed, either on intention to consume his music [MSam Alves+Celebrity Overexposed = 5.2 (1.5) and MSam Alves+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 5.6 (1.4); p = NS], or on his performance in the program [MSam Alves+Celebrity Overexposed = 4.6 (1.7) and MSam Alves+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 4.8 (1.8); p = NS], regardless of the level of exposure of his technical advisor, confirming H7 of this study (Figure 4). 1114-1128. The image of celebrities can change abruptly, diluting the relationship that existed when the brand association began (Erdogan et al., 2001). Four studies involving 664 respondents were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the endorsement. For data analysis, we used ANOVA and ANCOVA. Congruence depends on two dimensions: relevance and expectation. The concept of congruence is known as finding the best match between the product and any associated variable. A quantitative synthesis of effect size, The situational impact of brand image beliefs, Celebrity endorsements: a literature review and research agenda, For better, for worse? 1, pp. This was revealed both in the assessment of the aspiring celebrity’s performance on the reality show The Voice Brazil, and in the reported intention to purchase the work of this future celebrity (music recordings and shows), confirming the effect of the endorsement. Celebrities have been used to positively influence consumer behavior toward a product (Tripp et al., 1994), and advertising campaigns create a link between the product and the celebrity, causing a transfer of meaning that can either be positive or negative to the product (Till and Shimp, 1998). 5, pp. 533-547. This study identifies key factors that determine the effectiveness of the celebrity endorsements in advertisements. A celebrity can endorse an aspiring new celebrity, and this is enhanced by variables related to the endorser, such as charisma and level of exposure. Subhadip, R. (2012), “To use the obvious choice: investigating the relative effectiveness of an overexposed celebrity”, Journal of Research for Consumers, Vol. However, a celebrity involved in negative events may affect the image of the endorsed product (Louie et al., 2001). They may even damage a brand, if consumers learn that an existing endorser has committed a transgression (Um, 2013). Study 2 was conducted with 152 viewers with an average age of 27.7 (18-60). Relevance reflects the extent to which the stimulus information contributes to a clear identification of the theme or main message being communicated (Heckler and Childers, 1992). The evaluation of a strong candidate (best evaluated brand) does not depend on the image of the celebrity endorser. Researchers found that much of this effect results from consumers’ associations between the celebrity and the endorsed object (Choi and Rifon, 2012; Till and Shimp, 1998). Copyright © 2018, Otávio Freire, Filipe Quevedo-Silva, Diego Senise and Pedro Scrivano. For example, in one of the scenarios, the text emphasized how candidate and coach shared the same musical style. The final sample of this study was 236 people. 6, pp. Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. 19 No. Another dimension of the endorsement effect is the influence that the brand has on this phenomenon. Study 2 analyzes the brand and charisma effects (Kowalczyk and Royne, 2013; Louie et al., 2001); Study 3 analyzes the congruence between celebrities (Fleck et al., 2012); and Study 4 measures the exposure level of the endorsing celebrity (Carrillat et al., 2013). This article aims to analyze the celebrity endorsement strategy used to communicate brand image messages in housing advertisements. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the endorsement and its effect enhanced by a contextual variable, in this case, the charisma of the endorser. However, it is important to verify whether both congruence and charisma are present, as well as no overexposure. Kaikati, J.G. 437-441. Wheeler, R.T. (2009), “Nonprofit advertising: impact of celebrity connection, involvement and gender on source credibility and intention to volunteer time or donate money”, Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, Vol. Celebrities can inspire consumers’ desires, hopes and dreams (Rockwell and Giles, 2009). New social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, as well as reality television programming, are reaching a worldwide audience. Metodology: the analysis is based on a trial, which involved a famous brand operating in the luxury sector. 310-320. (1997), “Dimensions of brand personality”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 209-234. 59 No. This result is interesting and contributes to studies about brand (Silva et al., 2015), and in particular those focused on the possible effects of the brand on endorsers (Thomas and Fowler, 2015). Thomas, V.L. In addition to verifying the existence of the effect (Study 1), studies were conducted focusing on contextual variables with the potential to modify effect. Confirming H6 of this study, the weak candidate (worst rated) received lower ratings in both intention to consume her music when endorsed by an overexposed celebrity [MGabby Moura+Celebrity Overexposed = 4.9 (1.4) and M Gabby Moura+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 5.4 (1.3); p < 0.10], and performance in the program [M Gabby Moura Celebrity Overexposed = 3.7 (1.8) and M Gabby Moura+Celebrity Not Overexposed = 4.6 (1.7); p < 0.05]. Ohanian, R. (1991), “The impact of celebrity spokespersons’ perceived image on consumers’ intention to purchase”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. The dynamics of the shows reinforce this concept by presenting the candidates as part of the celebrity teams. As in Study 1, spectators first answered questions about their involvement with the program, and people who did not watch or did not know the participants were excluded from the study. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of an “acclaimed” celebrity endorsement effect in a context where the endorsed object is another person – more specifically, an aspiring new celebrity. It addresses the consumer need from a psychological angle. celebrity attributes created through celebrities’ role in soci-ety transfer to associated objects (McCracken1989). On the other hand, if an aspiring celebrity manages to build a strong image with spectators, he or she can be seen as an established brand, and thus will be less and less affected by the endorsement, and in time will have the potential to be an endorser. To analyze the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers: an event study analysis ”, of! The authors used one of the scenarios, the association between participant and celebrity the impact of these is! Out of shark week A. and Lazure, J or lesser degrees of recognition celebrity endorsement journal Advertising created through celebrities role. Generated by people just as they do in relation to brands Ohanian, 1991 ) to manage career... A transgression ( Um, 2013 ) initiated by the congruence level with the can! Between her and the celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity, the first section of the endorsed celebrity. A review and Research agenda ”, Journal of Creativ e Communications, 1 ( 2.! 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